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The main types of refrigerators and their principle of operation, tips and tricks for choosing

The main attribute of the kitchen, along with furniture, stove, work area and plumbing, is a refrigerator. The choice of household appliances can cause certain difficulties for buyers who do not have knowledge in this area, the types of refrigerators with their variety can confuse anyone. Before going to the store, it is necessary to clearly define the modification that is suitable for all the given parameters of the kitchen. When choosing a refrigerator, you should familiarize yourself with the assortment, offer, quality of certain goods.

refrigerator in the kitchen.

Before you go to buy the main equipment in the kitchen, you need to familiarize yourself with all the nuances.

The main types of refrigerators

It is the cooling system that classifies the refrigerator and affects the cost.

The classification of refrigerators depends on the technologies implemented, the number of chambers, their location, body material, design, installation method.

A wide range of types of refrigerators are presented on the market of large household appliances. Models differ in functionality, cooling systems, shape, size, purpose.

Types of refrigerators.

By functionality, design and mechanism, several types of refrigerator can be distinguished.

Depending on the cooling system

By the type of design (from which refrigerant circulates inside the refrigerating chamber), compressor, absorption, thermoelectric refrigeration systems are distinguished.


The compressor motor acts as a pressure blower to move the refrigerant through the system. The supply of freon to the condenser contributes to the transformation of gas into liquid, which passes through a capillary tube to the evaporator, gives off heat and, in a gaseous state, returns in a circle to the compressor. The compressor system is the most common.

Compressor refrigerator.

The cooling element in the compressor system is the compressor.


Instead of a compressor, it uses the principle of heating and subsequent absorption of the refrigerant, ammonia, with the absorption of the vapors of the latter by water. The evaporator is supplied by the pressure created by the hydrogen in the system. This type of refrigeration is losing its position in the refrigerator market.


Due to the property of the metal, to conduct electric current, releasing energy, a device with a thermoelectric cooling system was developed. Peculiar plates located on both sides of the refrigerating chamber, allowing electricity to pass through, absorb and give off heat, which makes it possible to cool some space.

Compressor refrigerator.

The most common type of refrigerator is considered to be compressor.

The most popular are modern compressor models, as well as refrigerators of the No Frost system, where a fan performs the function of a compressor. These systems allow you to install and cool refrigerators and freezers of any size, while consuming a reasonable amount of electricity..

The absorption system has been popular in the last century. However, some models of the domestic manufacturer have been modernized and received the right to life. This type of device is usually small. Of the advantages, one can note the rather quiet, even silent operation of the equipment.

Refrigerator but frost.

No frost cooling systems in the freezer compartment do not form ice and frost.

Thermoelectric refrigerators are presented in the form of portable devices for cars. Due to the technical qualities (continuous consumption of electric current), this product is not advisable to be produced on an industrial scale for use in the home..

Understanding what refrigerators are in terms of the cooling system, you can determine the positive and negative qualities of various models. Refrigerators today use dynamic cooling systems. The circulating air models of the NoFrost system are especially popular. These refrigerators also do not require additional defrosting. All modern expensive models are equipped with this function..

Defrosting the refrigerator.

Refrigerators working with the No Frost system do not need frequent defrosting.

Also, unlike outdated models, the cameras of modern devices maintain an optimal level of temperature and humidity, which differs by a couple of degrees in each compartment, for optimal preservation of the freshness of products and their quality. In refrigerators of the no frost system, ice never forms, frost on the back wall. Such a unit is devoid of the usual evaporator, or the latter is hidden from view. The technology is such that the collected condensate evaporates naturally without leaving any traces..

Depending on the location of the freezers

There are refrigerators without freezers. They are most often used to cool a large number of drinks. On newer models, the freezer compartment is usually located at the bottom. There are also models with an upper freezer, they are mainly produced by domestic manufacturers..


There are three types of arrangement of freezers.

Top location

Usually in single-chamber refrigerators with this arrangement, cold air from the freezer circulates throughout the space, but if the volume is filled with food, the coldest shelf will be the one on top.

Note! When choosing this design, it is necessary to take into account the fact that the shelf life of the products of the lower section is significantly reduced due to the higher temperature. Today, the models are represented by both small-sized goods and full-fledged modern devices. Although the model of this arrangement of the freezer came from the last century, many people are familiar and comfortable with the presence of this shelf at the top..

Freezer at the top.

Freezer compartment located at the top.

In the lower part

Typical arrangement of freezers in the lower part corresponds to the modern concept of two-compartment refrigerators. This distribution method is due to the presence of a magnetic valve, two evaporators, or a No Frost system in the unit. In this case, the contents of the refrigeration compartment are separated from the contents of the freezer compartment by a thick partition. Each chamber has its own door.

Freezer at the bottom.

Fridge-freezer at the bottom.

It is easy to imagine what kind of refrigerators the arrangement of chambers is, but it is important to take into account that if the freezer of a single-chamber apparatus with an upper arrangement fails, the cooling compartment will also stop working, which cannot be said about two-chamber specimens. The presence of its own evaporator in each chamber in the event of a breakdown of one of them will allow for some time to maintain a low temperature of the products of the other chamber.

The advantages of placing products at the bottom, in separate drawers of the freezer, are obvious. Various foods such as frozen vegetables, fish and meat must be kept separate.

By installation method

There are free-standing refrigerators and built-in.

refrigerator installation.

By the type of installation, refrigerators are of two types.

Standing separately

The finished device, the only need when choosing will be to measure the dimensions, width, height, depth. It is necessary to choose a model in the style of the kitchen, take into account the distance from walls and furniture during installation. This technique can be located both against the kitchen wall and in the opposite corner, next to the table. Ready-made refrigerators are the most spacious, characterized by a wide variety of functions and ease of use..

Separate refrigerator.

Freestanding refrigerator in the kitchen interior.


Does not differ in technical characteristics from conventional models, with the exception of the case, which in this situation is made in the form of a cabinet made of materials corresponding to the style of the kitchen.

Such a refrigerator is completely covered with panels on all sides, which gives the impression of its absence. Built-in models are suitable for a large kitchen, since the space of a small kitchen is lost due to the walls of the cabinet.

Built-in refrigerator.

The built-in refrigerator will be an excellent solution for small kitchen spaces..

Do not forget about all family members living in the house. A built-in refrigerator, or a free-standing one, must hold the required amount of food.

Currently, they began to use partial embedding of modular units. With this arrangement, the front of the refrigerator remains open..

Refrigerators depending on the number of chambers

The size of the refrigerator, installation method, cooling system, functionality complement the differences between the models in the number of chambers and their location. Adopted division into single-chamber, double-chamber, multi-chamber and Side by Side refrigerators. Here the preference should be given by the buyer himself, based on his own needs..

Refrigerator chambers.

There are three types of refrigerators by the type of chambers..

Single chamber

Appliances combined with a freezing section are equipped with a single evaporator, which reduces the cost. The freezer in such models is located on top. A common door with a seal opens access to two compartments at once, while the freezer has an additional thin door. In case of failure of a system element, both chambers stop cooling.

Refrigerator with one chamber.

Single chamber refrigerator.

Models of single-chamber refrigerators are technically simple. They are used most often in small families, in the country, for storing individual blanks.


Diverse, in terms of cooling systems, variability of functions. Combines two compartments with separate doors. The refrigerator compartment usually works independently of the freezer, thanks to the presence of its own compressor in each. Often equipped with a no frost system, additional freshness shelves. They are larger than single-chamber ones, technically they are awarded leadership over them..

Refrigerator with two chambers.

Two-compartment refrigerator.

A distinctive quality of such models is not only the temperature distribution, but the presence of zones with a certain degree of humidity.

For fish and meat products, moisture is considered optimal at 50 percent, for vegetables – 90.

Compared with single-chamber devices, two-chamber devices are more advanced, endowed with various capabilities..


They include not only a separately located freezer and refrigerator, but also a separate compartment with an optimal temperature of 0 °. If there are several such compartments, for separate storage of vegetables and fish, such a refrigerator is called multi-chamber. In these units, the freshness zone is not just highlighted by a separate shelf in a certain place. Multi-chamber devices are an innovative technological product, each door opens access to its own compartment, which maintains a certain temperature regime. In addition to additional space for food, refrigerators in this category can include a wine storage chamber, an ice-making dispenser and many features designed for the comfort of modern life..

Refrigerator with several chambers.

Multi-chamber refrigerator.

Multi-compartment refrigerators by design can be with pull-out immersion drawers or double doors.

Refrigerators Side by Side

Outwardly, it resembles a double-leaf cabinet, where on one side there is a freezer compartment area, and on the other – a refrigerating chamber. Such models are often multi-chamber, with the presence of an ice-making device. The principle of placing chambers next to each other saves space in the kitchen, makes the refrigerator convenient for placing food in it, and the freezer compartment is spacious and accessible. The side-by-side refrigerator belongs to the premium class, is more expensive than other models and includes a lot of features that are not available in other devices. Computerized copies allow you to track the filling and consumption of products.

side by side.

Refrigerator Side by side.

By the number of doors and the material of their manufacture

The blind sash still adorns the façade. Models with two doors are popular..

The number of refrigerator doors depends on the presence of additional chambers in it. The two-chamber has two, the three-chamber has three, and so on..

In addition to standard solutions, display cases appeared in the design of refrigerator doors. This format has not yet received a mass phenomenon, but it is already gaining popularity..

Built-in refrigerator.

Built-in refrigerator design.

Side by side models are most often equipped with two doors with handles.

The materials for the manufacture of the body and doors are set by the manufacturer based on demand, design solutions. Stainless steel is often used, which is technically complex and therefore expensive in price. The use of impact-resistant plastic with various colors is widespread. The panels are made by casting, filling the space with polyurethane foam. There are doors with a polymer coating. In this case, the steel is coated with a special acrylic solution, or powder paint technology is used.

Refrigerator in the kitchen.

Side by side refrigerator in the kitchen.

Stainless steel products are quite difficult to maintain. Traces and fingerprints remain on such surfaces, which can only be removed with the help of special means. In general, stainless steel refrigerators look expensive, the material is resistant to damage and will suit any interior.

Variety of design solutions

When the next model is released, a team of specialists works on its appearance. There are a lot of options: there are multi-chamber models with wide mirrored doors, budget options, which are also varied in style and color. Some manufacturers focus on retro style, releasing modern refrigerators in the case of the old models. The designer pays attention not only to the appearance, but also to the functionality: dimensions, height, width, volume. The most popular with a high price range are stainless steel devices. Built-in models adapt to the look of the kitchen. Various accents in the form of overlays, handles, volumetric shapes of doors, give the refrigerator a unique look, which makes it a decoration of the kitchen.

Kitchen with black fridge.

Black refrigerator for kitchen design.

Today, the range of models of refrigeration units is endlessly rich. With financial solvency, you can get an exclusive product that meets all the requirements.

In spacious kitchens, there is a tendency to have entire restaurant-style refrigerators with many additional compartments. Such settings are convenient for sorting products..

Refrigerator in the kitchen.

Refrigerator in the design of a spacious kitchen.

In an ordinary apartment for a full family, a two-chamber refrigerator model will fit perfectly, corresponding to the color scheme of the kitchen.

Useful tips and tricks for choosing a refrigerator

Before buying, be sure to:

  • decide on the size;
  • for the sake of comfort, choose the optimal cooling system, while taking into account the noise level;
  • provide for the need for a spacious separate freezer in two-compartment models;
  • choose the installation method;
  • decide on the color scheme, the material of the case.

By purchasing a refrigerator, the buyer pays for new technologies, additional functions such as no frost system, super freezing, an ice-making dispenser, a liquid crystal display with precise temperature control, the presence of additional boxes of “freshness zones”.

Two-compartment refrigerator.

Two-compartment refrigerator in the kitchen.

It is important to determine a suitable location for the refrigerator. Installation near hobs is not recommended under any circumstances. There should be a distance from the wall to avoid overheating, proximity to the outlet also matters. Built-in models must be adapted to the modular kitchen.

An important point when buying a refrigerator is the reputation of the manufacturer. Do not forget that a quality product is expensive in price. But it will serve its owners for many years, will have all the necessary functions, and the ease of use will not make you regret your choice.

Video: How to choose a refrigerator?

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